Some of the following questions are in reference to the systems of a Cessna 172-RG. For accuracy, a review of your aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook should be made.
1. What is the recommended procedure for recovery from a spin? (FAA-H-8083-3)
In the absence of the manufacturer’s recommended spin recovery procedures and techniques, the following spin recovery procedures are recommended.
a. Reduce the power (throttle) to idle.
2. What does an aft center of gravity do to an aircraft’s spin characteristics? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Recovery from a stall in any aircraft becomes progressively more difficult as its center of gravity moves aft. This is particularly important in spin recovery, as there is a point in rearward loading of any airplane at which a “flat” spin will develop. A “flat” spin is one in which centrifugal force acting through a center of gravity located well to the rear, will put the tail of the airplane out away from the axis of the spin, making it impossible to get the nose down and recover.
3. What load factor is present in a spin? (AC 61-67C)
The load factor during a spin will vary with the spin characteristics of each airplane but is usually found to be slightly above the 1G load of level flight. There are two reasons this is true:
B. Emergency Checklist
Discuss the use of an emergency checklist.
In the event of an in-flight emergency, the pilot should be sufficiently familiar with emergency procedures to take immediate action instinctively as soon as circumstances permit, the emergency checklist should be reviewed to ensure that all required items have been checked. Additionally, before takeoff, a pilot should be sure that the emergency checklist will be readily accessible in flight if needed.
C. Partial Power Loss
What procedures should be followed concerning a partial loss of power in flight? (POH)
If a partial loss of power occurs, the first priority is to establish and maintain a suitable airspeed (best glide airspeed if necessary).
D. Engine Failure
1. In the event of a complete engine failure on takeoff, what procedure is recommended? (POH)
If an engine failure occurs during the takeoff run, the following checklist should be completed:
2. If an engine failure occurs immediately after takeoff, what procedure is recommended? (POH)
If an engine failure occurs immediately after takeoff, and before a safe maneuvering altitude is attained, it is usually inadvisable to attempt to turn back to the field from which the takeoff was made. Instead, it is generally safer to immediately establish the proper glide altitude, and select a field directly ahead or slightly to either side of the takeoff path.
The following checklist should be completed:
3. What is the recommended procedure to be followed for an engine failure while en route? (POH)
The first priority is to establish a best-glide airspeed. Then, select an emergency landing area and remain within gliding distance. As time permits, try to determine the cause of the failure (no fuel, carburetor, etc.). attempt an engine restart if possible. The recommended checklist for this procedure is:
4. What is the recommended power-off gliding speed in an engine-out procedure? (POH)
73 KIAS at 2,650 pounds.
E. Emergency Landing
1. If an engine failure has occurred while en route and a forced landing is imminent, what procedures should be followed? (POH)
a. Establish an airspeed of 75 KIAS.
2. Immediately before touchdown in a forced landing procedure, what items should be completed?
The Emergency Landing Checklist should be completed:
3. If an engine failure situation, what glide ratio will be obtained if the best-glide airspeed is maintained?
A loss of 600 feet per 1 nautical mile (i.e., an aircraft at 3,000 feet AGL would have a maximum gliding distance of 5 miles).
4. If a forced landing is imminent, should the landing gear be left up, or down and locked? (FAA-H-8083-3)
There can’t be a hard and fast rule concerning the position of a retractable landing gear at touchdown. In rugged terrain and trees, or during impacts at high sink rate, an extended gear would definitely have a protective effect on the cockpit/cabin area. But weigh this advantage against the possible side effects of a collapsing gear, such as a ruptured fuel tank. As always, the manufacturer’s recommendations as outlined In the AFM/POH should be followed. When a normal touchdown is assured, and ample stopping distance is available, a gear-up landing on level-but-soft terrain, or across a plowed field, may result in less airplane damage than a gear-down landing.
5. If an engine failure has occurred while over water, and you are beyond power-off gliding distance to land, what procedures should be followed? (POH)
a. Set your transponder to “7700” and broadcast a “mayday” message on the frequency in use or 121.5 MHz.
F. Engine Roughness or Overheat
1. What is detonation? (FAA-H-8083-15)
Detonation is an uncontrolled, explosive ignition of the fuel/air mixture within the cylinder’s combustion chamber. It causes excessive temperatures and pressures which, if not corrected, can quickly lead to failure of the piston, cylinder, or valves. In less severe cases, detonation causes engine overheating, roughness, or loss of power. It is characterized by high cylinder head temperatures, and is most likely to occur when operating at high power settings.
2. What are some of the most common operational causes of detonation? (FAA-H-8083-25)
a. Using a lower fuel grade than that specified by the aircraft manufacturer.
3. What action should be taken if detonation is suspected? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Detonation may be avoided by following these basic guidelines during the various phases of ground and flight operations:
a. Make sure the proper grade of fuel is being used.
4. What is preignition? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Preignition occurs when the fuel/air mixture ignites prior to the engine’s normal ignition event. Premature burning is usually caused by a residual hot spot in the combustion chamber, often created by a small carbon deposit on a spark plug, a cracked spark plug insulator, or other damage in the cylinder that causes a part to heat sufficiently to ignite the fuel/air charge. Preignition causes the engine to lose power, and produces high operating temperature. As with detonation, preignition may also cause severe engine damage, because the expanding gases exert excessive pressure on the piston while still on its compression stroke.
5. What action should be taken if preignition is suspected? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Detonation and preignition often occur simultaneously and one may cause the other. Since either condition causes high engine temperature accompanied by a decrease in engine performance, it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. Using the recommended grade of fuel, and operating the engine within its proper temperature, pressure, and rpm ranges, reduces the chance of detonation or preignition.
6. If the engine begins to run rough when flying through heavy rain, what action should be taken?
During flight through heavy rain, it is possible for the induction air filter to become water saturated. This situation will reduce the amount of available air to the carburetor resulting in an excessively rich mixture and a corresponding loss of power. Carburetor heat may be used as an alternate source of air in such situation.
7. Are there any special considerations necessary when using the auxiliary pump after an engine-driven fuel pump failure? (POH)
In a high-wing, single-engine aircraft, which has sustained an engine-driven fuel pump failure, gravity flow will provide sufficient fuel flow for level or descending flight. If the failure occurs while in a climb or the fuel pressure falls below 0.5 PSI, the auxiliary fuel pump should be used.
8. What operating procedure could be used to minimize spark plug fouling?
Engine roughness may occur due to “fouling” of the spark plug electrodes. This condition may occur on the ground or in the air and is usually the result of an excessively rich mixture setting which causes unburned carbon and lead deposits to collect on the spark plug electrodes. A pilot may alleviate this problem to some degree by always utilizing the recommended lean setting for the given condition.
G. Loss of Oil Pressure
1. During a cross-country flight you notice that the oil pressure is low, but the oil temperature is normal. What is the problem and what action should be taken?
A low oil pressure in flight could be the result of any one of several problems, the most common being that of insufficient oil. If the oil temperature continues to remain normal, a clogged oil pressure relief valve or an oil pressure gauge malfunction could be the culprit. In any case, a landing at the nearest airport is advisable to check for the cause of the trouble.
2. If a loss of oil pressure occurs accompanied by a rising oil temperature, what is indicated? (FAA-H-8083-25)
The oil required for cooling has been lost, and an engine failure is imminent. The throttle should be reduced, and a suitable landing area should be established as soon as possible. Use minimum power to reach the emergency landing area.
H. Smoke and Fire
1. What procedure should be followed if an engine fire develops on the ground during starting? (POH)
Continue to attempt an engine start as a start will cause flames and excess fuel to be sucked back through the carburetor.
a. If the engine starts:
In the event of an engine fire in flight, the following procedure should be used:
3. What procedures should be followed if an electrical fire develops inside the aircraft? (POH)
If an electrical fire is suspected (burning odor), the pilot should initially try to identify the possible source by checking all circuit breakers, avionics and instruments. If the problem is not detected and the odor or smoke continues, the following checklist should be completed:
4. What troubleshooting procedure should be followed determining the cause of an electrical fire that is not readily apparent? (POH)
a. Turn the master switch “On”.
5. What procedure should be followed if a cabin fire develops in flight? (POH)
Typically cabin fires are electrical in nature and identifying and disabling the faulty circuit is the first priority. However, careless smoking by passengers has also been a significant cause of cabin fires. The following checklist should be completed:
6. What procedure should be followed if a wing fire develops in flight? (POH)
If a wing fire develops in flight, the following checklist should be completed:
1. What are the three main types of aircraft icing? (AC 00-6A)
Structural, induction system, and instrument icing.
2. Name four types of structural ice. (AC 00-6A)
Clear ice – Forms when large drops strike the aircraft surface and slowly freeze.
3. What is necessary for structural icing to occur? (AC 00-6A)
The aircraft must be flying through visible water such as rain or cloud droplets; temperature must be at the point where moisture strikes the aircraft at 0°C or colder.
4. Which type of structural icing is more dangerous, rime or clear? (AC 00-6A)
Clear ice is hard, heavy, and tenacious. It is typically the most hazardous ice encountered. Clear ice forms when, after initial impact, the remaining liquid portion of the drop flows out over the aircraft surface, gradually freezing as a smooth sheet of solid ice. This type forms when drops are large, as in rain or in cumuliform clouds. Its removal by deicing equipment is especially difficult due to the fact that it forms as it flows away from the deicing equipment (inflatable boots, etc).
5. What action is recommended if you inadvertently encounter icing conditions? (AC 00-6A)
You should change course and/or altitude; usually, climb to a higher altitude.
6. If icing has been inadvertently encountered, how would your landing approach procedure be different?
The following guidelines may be used when flying an airplane which has accumulated ice:
7. Which type of precipitation will produce the most hazardous icing conditions?
Freezing rain produces the most hazardous icing conditions.
8. Does the stall warning system have any protection from ice? (POH)
No, but some aircraft may be equipped with a heated stall warning system which consists of a vane, sensor unit and heating element on the leading edge of the wing. Usually this system is activated by the same switch that controls the pitot heat.
9. What causes carburetor icing and what are the first indications of its presence? (FAA-H-8083-25)
The vaporization of fuel, combined with the expansion of air as it passes through the carburetor, causes a sudden cooling of the mixture. The temperature of the air passing through the carburetor may drop as much as 60°F within a fraction of a second. Water vapor is squeezed out by this cooling, and, if the temperature in the carburetor reaches 32°F or below, the moisture will be deposited as frost or ice inside the carburetor.
10. What conditions are favorable for carburetor icing? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Carburetor ice is most likely to occur when temperatures are below 70°F (21°C) and the relative humidity is above 80 percent. However, due to the sudden cooling that takes place in the carburetor, icing can occur even with temperatures as high as 100°F (38°C) and humidity as low as 50 percent. This temperature drop can be as much as 60 to 70°F. therefore, at an outside air temperature of 100°F, a temperature drop of 70°F results in an air temperature in the carburetor of 30°F.
1. What is meant by decompression? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Decompression s the inability of the aircrafts pressurization system to maintain the designed “aircraft cabin” pressure. For example, an aircraft is flying at an altitude of 29,000 feet but the aircraft cabin is pressurized to an altitude equivalent to 8,000 feet. If decompression occurs, the cabin pressure may become equivalent to that if the aircraft’s altitude of 29,000 feet. The rate at which this occurs determines the severity of decompression.
2. What are the two types of decompression? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Explosive decompression – Cabin pressure decreases faster than the lungs can decompress. Most authorities consider any kind of decompression which occurs in less than ½ second as explosive and potentially dangerous. This type of decompression could only be caused by structural damage, material failure, or by a door “popping” open.
3. What are the dangers of decompression? (FAA-H-8083-25)
K. Emergency Descent
1. When would an emergency descent procedure be necessary? (FAA-H-8083-25)
An emergency descent is a maneuver for descending as rapidly as possible, within the structural limitations of the airplane, to a lower altitude or to the ground for an emergency landing. The need for this maneuver may result from an uncontrollable fire, a sudden loss of cabin pressurization, or any other situation demanding an immediate and rapid descent.
2. What procedure should be followed in establishing an emergency descent? (FAA-H-8083-3)
Generally the maneuver should be configured as recommended by the manufacturer. Except when prohibited by the manufacturer, the following procedure may be utilized:
a. Reduce power to idle;
L. Pitot / Static System and Associated Flight Instruments
1. What instruments are affected when the pitot tube freezes? (FAA-H-8083-25)
a. Pitot tube blocked and associated drain hole remains clear – Airspeed decreases to zero, altimeter and vertical speed read normal.
2. What instruments are affected when the static port freezes? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Airspeed Indicator – Accurate at the altitude frozen as long as the static pressure in the indicator and the system equals outside pressure. If the aircraft descends, the airspeed indicator would read high (outside static pressure greater than that trapped). If the aircraft climbs, the airspeed indicator will read low.
3. Does the pitot system have any protection from ice?
Yes, the heated pitot system consists of the following components:
4. What corrective action is needed if the pitot tube freezes? – If the static port freezes? (FAA-H-8083-25)
Pitot tube – Turn pitot heat on.
5. What indications should you expect while using alternate air? (FAA-H-8083-25)
In many unpressurized aircraft equipped with a pitot-static tube, an alternate source of static pressure is provided for emergency use. If the alternate source is vented inside the airplane, where static pressure is usually lower than outside, selection of the alternate static source may result in the following indications:
M. Vacuum System and Associated Flight Instruments
1. What instruments may be relied upon in the event of a complete vacuum system failure while operating in instrument meteorological conditions?
Turn and Slip/Turn Coordinator – bank information
2. If the engine-driven vacuum pump were to fail, is there a backup system available?
Some general aviation aircraft may be equipped with a backup vacuum system. This system may be electrically driven or could be an engine-driven vacuum pump running in parallel to the primary pump.
1. What recommended procedure should be used in resetting a tripped circuit breaker? (POH)
Circuit breakers may be reset, but allow for a short cooling period, to occur first (2 minutes). If, after resetting the circuit breaker, it pops out again, the circuit should be disabled and the circuit breaker left out.
2. Interpret the following ammeter indications. (POH)
a. Ammeter indicates a right deflection (positive).
b. Ammeter indicates a left deflection (negative).
3. What action should be taken if the ammeter indicates a continuous discharge (left needle) while in flight?
The alternator has quit producing a charge, so the master switch and the alternator circuit breaker should be checked and reset if necessary. If this does not correct the problem, the following should be accomplished:
4. What action should be taken if the ammeter indicates a continuous charge (right needle) while in flight (more than two needle widths)? (POH)
If a continuous excessive rate of charge were allowed for any extended period of time, the battery would overheat and evaporate the electrolyte at an excessive rate. A possible explosion of the battery could result. Also, electronic components in the electrical system would be adversely affected by higher than normal voltage. Protection is provided by an over voltage sensor which will shut the alternator down if an excessive voltage is detected. If this should occur the following should be done:
5. If the low-voltage warning light illuminates, what has occurred? (POH)
Illumination of the low-voltage light along with a discharge indication on the ammeter can occur during low rpm conditions with a full electrical load on the system. This event usually occurs on the ground with low rpms while taxiing. Another possibility is the alternator has been shutdown; the airplane is equipped with a combination alternator/regulator high-low voltage control unit which, when an over-voltage condition occurs, will shut down the alternator and illuminate the warning light. The battery is now supplying all current to the electrical system. The ammeter will indicate a discharge.
O. Landing Gear
1. If a positive gear down indication is not received, what action is recommended first? (POH)
Several preliminary checks can be made prior to utilizing the emergency extension procedure:
2. What recommended procedure should be utilized if the landing gear fails to retract after takeoff? (POH)
If the landing gear fails to retract normally, the following checklist should be completed
Note: If you still hear a gear motor noise after 1 minute, pull out the gear pump circuit breaker to avoid overheating the motor. You can reinstall the circuit breaker when needed for landing.
3. How is the emergency gear extension system operated?
There is a hand-operated pump, located between the front seats, which may be used for manual extension of the landing gear in the event of a hydraulic failure.
4. What is the recommended procedure if the landing gear will not extended normally? (POH)
If the landing gear fails to extend normally, the following checklist should be completed.
5. What procedure should be followed if a pilot does not receive a positive indication of the gear being down and locked? (POH)
Attempt to extend the gear manually. If this action is unsuccessful, plan for a gear-up landing. The following checklist should be completed:
6. What is the recommended procedure in dealing with a flat main landing gear tire? (POH)
a. Establish a normal approach configuration with full flaps.
7. What is the recommended procedure to follow if the nose gear is unsafe or the tire is flat? (POH)
a. Complete the before landing checklist.
8. Why should taxiing on a slush, snow, or ice covered taxiway in a retractable gear airplane be avoided? (AC 91-6A)
Problems may occur with the retraction or extension of the landing gear due to water, slush, or snow freezing on various gear system components. On the climb out, recycle the landing gear two or three times to prevent gear components from freezing.
P. Wing Flaps (asymmetrical Position)
1. What is an “asymmetrical” flap emergency? (FAA-H-8083-3)
An asymmetric “split” flap situation is one in which one flap deploys or retracts while the other remains in position. The problem is indicated by a pronounced roll toward the wing with the least flap deflection when wing flaps are extended or retracted.
2. What procedure should be followed in an asymmetrical flap emergency? (FAA-H-8083-3)
The roll encountered in a split flap situation is countered with opposite aileron. The yaw caused by the additional drag created by the extended flap will require substantial opposite rudder, resulting in a cross-control condition. Almost full aileron may be required to maintain a wings-level attitude, especially at the reduced airspeed necessary for approach and landing. The approach to landing with a split flap condition should be flown at a higher than normal airspeed. The pilot should not risk an asymmetric stall and subsequent loss of control by flaring excessively. The airplane should be flown onto the runway so that the touchdown occurs at an airs peed consistent with a safe margin above flaps-up stall speed.
Q. Inoperative Elevator
What procedure should be followed if loss of elevator control occurs? (POH)
a. Extend the landing gear.
1. What procedure should be followed if a cabin door accidentally opens in flight? (POH)
a. Establish a straight-and-level flight configuration.
2. What procedure should be followed if a baggage door opens in flight? (POH)
Baggage compartments tend to be located in the aft section of the airplane and under no circumstances should the pilot allow anyone to attempt to close the doors while in flight. By design, the baggage compartment door will tend to remain closed during flight due to airflow pressure.
S. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear
1. What two factors should be considered when considering the type of survival equipment to carry for a flight over an uninhabited area? (AIM 6-2-7)
a. The type of climate
2. What additional equipment is required if an aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore? (14 CFR 91.205)
If an aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore, approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and at least one pyrotechnic signaling device.
3. What do you have in the aircraft that can be used to aid in survival?
a. The compass will keep you going in one direction.