Chapter 8

Oral Exam Preparation Questions and Answers

A. Aeronautical Decision Making
1. Define aeronautical decision making. (FAA-H-8083-9)ADM is the systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

2. During flight, decisions must be made regarding events that involve interactions between the four risk elements. What are they? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Pilot-in-command – the aircraft – the environment – the operation

3. Which are the major factors affecting judgment and decision making? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Stress – health – attitude – experience

4. Name the five hazardous attitudes that negatively impact a pilot’s judgment and ability to make competent decisions and their antidotes. (FAA-H-8083-9)

Attitudes Antidotes
Anti-authority Follow the rules, they are usually right.
Impulsivity Think first – not so fast.
Invulnerability It could happen to me.
Macho Taking chances is foolish.
Resignation I can make a difference, I am not helpless.

B. Crew Resource Management

1. What does crew resource management (CRM) refer to? (FAA-H-8083-9)

CRM is the application of team management concepts in the flight check environment. It was initially known as “cockpit resource management”, but as CRM programs evolved to include cabin crews, maintenance personnel, and others, it became “crew resource management”. This includes single pilots, must make effective use of all available resources – human resources, hardware, and information.

2. Discuss the importance of understanding the concept of positive exchange of flight controls, as it relates to flight training. (FAA-H-8083-9)

During flight training, there must always be a clear understanding between students and flight instructors of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to flight, a briefing should be conducted that include the procedure for the exchange of flight controls. A positive three step process in the exchange of flight controls between pilots is a proven procedure and one that is strongly recommended.

3. Describe the three-step process used for the positive exchange of flight controls. (FAA-H-8083-9)

During this procedure, a visual check is recommended to see that the other person actually has the flight controls. When returning the controls to the instructor, the student should follow the same procedure the instructor used when giving control to the student. The student should stay on the controls and keep flying the aircraft until the instructor says, “I have the flight controls.” There should never be any doubt as to who is flying the aircraft.
• When the flight instructor wishes the student to take control of the aircraft, the instructor says to the student:
“You have the flight controls”.
• The student acknowledges immediately by saying:
“I have the flight controls”.
• The flight instructor again says:
“You have the flight controls.”

C. Use of checklists

1. Why are pilots encouraged to use checklists? (FAA-H-8083-3)

Checklists provide a logical and standardized method to operate a particular make and model airplane. Following a checklist reinforces the use of proper procedures throughout all major phases of flight operations.

2. What are the two primary methods for using checklists? (FAA-H-8083-3)

a. Read and Do – This is when the pilot picks up a checklist, refers to an item, and sets the condition. The items for any particular phase of flight would all be accomplished before the checklist is set aside.
b. Do and Verify – Set the condition of the items for a particular phase of operation from memory or flow pattern, then use the checklist and read to verify that the appropriate condition for each item in that phase has been set. It is not wise for a pilot to become so reliant upon a flow pattern that he or she fails to verify with a checklist. Checking important items solely from memory is not an acceptable substitute for checklists.