|A. Privileges and Limitations1. What privileges apply to a commercial pilot? (14 CFR 61.133)A person who holds a commercial pilot certificate may act as pilot-in-command of an aircraft:
a. Carrying persons or property for compensation or hire
b. For compensation or hire
Note: 14 CFR §61.133 also states that a commercial pilot must be qualified and comply with the applicable parts of the regulations that apply to the particular operation being conducted, for example Part 91 or 135.
2. Discuss commercial pilot operations.
A commercial pilot intending to conduct operations as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire should look cautiously at any proposal for revenue operating flights.
The following facts should be considered:
3. What does the term “commercial operator” refer to? (14 CFR Part 1)
Commercial operator means a person who, for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property, other than as an air carrier or foreign air carrier or under the authority of Part 375 of this title [Title 14]. Where it is doubtful that an operation is for “compensation or hire”, the test applied is whether the carriage by air is merely incidental to the person’s other business or is, in itself, a major enterprise for profit.
4. Define the term “common carriage”. (AC 120-12A)
Common carriage refers to the carriage of passengers or cargo as a result of advertising the availability of the carriage to the public. A carrier becomes a common carrier when it “holds itself out” to the public, or a segment of the public, as willing to furnish transportation within the limits of its facilities to any person who wants it. There are four elements in defining a “common carrier”:
5. Define “holding out”. (AC 120-12A)
Holding out implies offering to the public the carriage of persons and property for hire either intrastate or interstate. This holding out which makes a person a common carrier can be done in many ways, and it does not matter how it is done.
6. Define the term “private carriage”. (AC 120-12A)
Carriage for hire that does not involve holding out is “private carriage”. Private carriage for hire is carriage for one or several selected customers, generally on a long-term basis. The number of contracts must not be too great, otherwise it implies a willingness to make a contract with anybody. A carrier operating with 18 to 24 contracts has been labeled a common carrier because it has held itself out to serve the general public to the extent of its facilities. Private carriage has been found in cases where three contracts have been the sole basis of the operator’s business. But the number of particular operation is common carriage or private carriage; any proposal for revenue-generating flights that would most likely require certification as an air carrier should be examined closely if you intend to practice private carriage.
7. State some typical examples of private carriage operations. (Order 8300.10)
a. Carriage of the operator’s own employees or property
8. Determine if either of the following two scenarios are common carriage operations and, if so, why?
Scenario 1: I am a local businessman and require a package to be flown to a distant destination ASAP. I will pay you to fly my airplane to deliver this package.
Scenario 2: I am a local businessman and require a package to be flown to a distant destination ASAP. You reply that you can do the job for a fee. You promptly line up a local rental aircraft you’re checked out in and deliver the package.
Scenario 2 would be considered a common carriage operation because you are holding out by indicating a general willingness to all customers with whom contact is made to transport persons or property from place to place for compensation.
9. Briefly describe 14 CFR Parts 119, 121, 125, 135, and 137.
Part 119 – Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators
10. What limitation is imposed on a newly certificated commercial airplane pilot if that person does not hold an instrument rating? (14 CFR 61.133)
The pilot must hold an instrument rating in the same category and class, or the Commercial Pilot Certificate that is issued is endorsed with a limitation prohibiting the following:
11. To act as pilot-in-command or in any other capacity as a required flight crewmember of a civil aircraft, what must a pilot have in his/her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft? (14 CFR 61.3)
a. A valid pilot certificate
12. If a certificated pilot changes his/her permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airman Certification branch of the new address, the pilot is entitled to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate for what period of time? (14 CFR 61.60)
30 days after the date of the move.
13. If a pilot certificate were accidentally lost or destroyed, a pilot could continue to exercise privileges of that certificate provided he/she follows what specific procedure? (14 CFR 61.29)
a. An application for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman certificate issued under Part 61 is made by letter to the Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration; and
14. To act as pilot-in-command of a high-performance aircraft, what flight experience requirements must be met? (14 CFR 61.31)
A high-performance airplane is an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower. To act as pilot-in-command of a high-performance airplane a person must have:
a. Received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane; and
15. To act as pilot-in-command of a pressurized aircraft, what flight experience requirements must be met? (14 CFR 61.31)
To act as pilot-in-command of a pressurized aircraft (an aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL), a person must have received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor and obtained an endorsement in the person’s logbook or training record from an authorized instructor who certifies the person has:
16. To act as pilot-in-command of a tail wheel airplane, what flight experience requirements must e met? (14 CFR 61.31)
No person may act as pilot-in-command of a tail wheel airplane unless that person has received and logged flight training from an authorized instructor in a tail wheel airplane and received an endorsement in the person’s logbook from an authorized instructor who found the person proficient in the operation of a tail wheel airplane. The flight training must include at least the following maneuvers and procedures; normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings, wheel landings and go-around procedures.
17. When would a commercial pilot be required to hold a type rating? (14 CFR 61.31)
According to 14CFR §61.31, a person who acts as a pilot-in-command of any of the following aircraft, must hold a type rating for that aircraft:
18. With respect to certification, privileges, and limitations of airmen, define the terms “Category”, “Class” and “Type”. (14 CFR Part 1)
Category – a broad classification of aircraft; i.e., airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc.
19. Can a pilot with a commercial certificate and multi-engine land rating carry passengers in a single-engine airplane? (14 CFR 61.31)
No. Unless he holds a category and class rating for that aircraft, a person may not act as pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is carrying another person or is operated for compensation or hire.
20. Can a commercial pilot carry a passenger in an aircraft operated in formation flight? (14 CFR 91.111)
No person may operate an aircraft, carrying passengers for hire, in formation flight.
21. Can a commercial pilot carry passengers in a restricted, limited or experimental category aircraft? (14 CFR 91.313, 91.315, 91.317, and 91.319)
No person may operate a restricted, limited, or experimental category aircraft carrying persons or property for hire.
22. When may a commercial pilot log flight time as second-in-command time? (14 CFR 61.51)
According to 14 CFR §61.51, a pilot may log second-in-command time only for that flight time during which that person:
23. You are currently en route to your destination and the sun has set. When can you begin logging flight time as “night” flight time? (14 CFR Part 1)
“Night” is defined as the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the American Air Almanac and converted to local time. All flight time that occurs during this period of time is considered “night” flight time.
B. Currency Requirements
1. What are the requirements to remain current as a commercial pilot? (14 CFR 61.56 and 61.57)
a. To remain current a commercial pilot must have accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which the pilot is rated by an appropriately-rated instructor within the preceding 24 calendar months.
2. What class of medical certificate is required for commercial pilots? (14 CFR 61.23)
A second-class medical certificate is required in order to exercise commercial pilot privileges.
3. What is the duration of a second-class medical certificate for operations requiring a commercial pilot certificate? (14 CFR 61.23)
A second-class medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of the 12th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on the certificate for operations requiring a commercial certificate.
Each person must document and record, in a manner acceptable to the Administrator, the training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a certificate, rating or flight review of this part. They must also document and record the aeronautical experience required for meeting the recent flight experience requirements of this part.
C. Aircraft Certificates and Documents
1. What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight? (14 CFR 91.9 and 91.203)
2. Which documents, required on board an aircraft, must be displayed in such a way so as to be visible by both passengers and crew? (14 CFR 91.203)
No person may operate a civil aircraft unless the Airworthiness Certificate required or a special flight authorization issued is displayed at the cabin entrance or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to passengers and crew.
3. Are the aircraft and engine logbooks required to be carried on board an aircraft?
No. Generally, it is more advisable to keep the logbooks in a safe, secure place such as office, home, etc. The regulations do not specifically state where the logbooks are to be kept but they do say that they should be made available upon request.
4. How can a pilot determine if his/her aircraft is equipped with a Mode C altitude encoding transponder?
By referencing the current weight and balance equipment list for that aircraft, a pilot could positively determine if a Mode C transponder is installed.
5. If the Airworthiness Certificate of a particular aircraft indicated one of the following categories, what significance would this have? (14 CFR Part 23)
a. Normal Category
a. Normal Category – Aircraft structure capable of withstanding a load factor of 3.8 Gs without structural failure. Applicable to aircraft intended for non-aerobatic operation.
6. Are airplane flight manuals (AFM) required to be on board all aircraft? (AC 60-6B)
14 CFR 91.9 requires that all U.S.-registered aircraft have available in the aircraft a current, approved AFM, or if applicable, any combination of approved manual materials, markings, and placards. Generally, all aircraft manufactured after March 1, 1979 must have an AFM. For airplanes type-certificated at gross weights of 6,000 pounds or under which were not required to have an AFM, the required information may be an AFM or any combination of approved manual material, markings, and placards. These materials must be current and available in the airplane during operation.
7. What are Special Flight Permits, and when are they necessary? (FAA-H-8083-25, 14 CFR 21.197)
It is an authorization that may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is safe for a specific flight. These permits (possibly, following an inspection by an inspector) are typically issued for the following purposes:
8. What is the procedure for obtaining a special flight permit? (FAA-H-8083-25)
If a special flight permit is needed, assistance and the necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR).
9. What instruments and equipment are required for VFR day flight? (14 CFR 91.205)
Required for VFR flight during the day:
10. What instruments and equipment are required for VFR night flight? (14 CFR 91.205)
Required for VFR flight at night:
D. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
1. Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.403)
The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an airworthy condition.
2. After aircraft inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.7)
The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot-in-command shall discontinue the flight when un-airworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.
3. Can you legally fly an aircraft that has an inoperative flap position indicator?
Unless operations are conducted under 14 CFR §91.213, the regulations with either the Airworthiness Standards or the Operating Rules must be operative, the Airworthiness Certificate is not valid until such equipment is either repaired or removed from that aircraft. However, the rules also permit the publication of a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) where compliance with these equipment requirements is not necessary in the interest of safety under all conditions.
4. Can an aircraft operator allow flight operations to be conducted in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment? (AC 91-67, 14 CFR 91.213)
Part 91 describes acceptable methods for the operation of an aircraft with certain inoperative instruments and equipment which are not essential for safe flight. These acceptable methods of operation are:
5. What are Minimum Equipment Lists? (AC 91-67)
The minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a precise listing of instruments, equipments, and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers; e.g., BE-200, N12345. The FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equipment which the administrator finds may be inoperative and yet maintain an acceptable level of safety by appropriate conditions and limitations.
6. If an aircraft is not being operated under a MEL, how can you determine which instruments and equipment on board can be inoperative and the aircraft still be legal for flight? (14 CFR 91.213)
A person may takeoff an aircraft in operations conducted under Part 91 with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved Minimum Equipment List provided the inoperative instruments and equipment are not –
7. What is an aircraft equipment list, and where is it found? (FAA-H-8083-1)
Furnished with the aircraft is an equipment list that specifies all the required equipment and all equipment approved for installation in the aircraft. The weight and arm of each item is included on the list, and all equipment installed when the aircraft left the factory is checked. It is usually found with the weight and balance data.
8. What must happen if an AMT removes or installs a piece of equipment that is on the aircraft equipment list? (FAA-H-8083-1)
The AMT must change the weight and balance record to indicate the new empty weight and EWCG, and the equipment list is revised to show which equipment is actually installed. The AFM/POH for each individual aircraft includes an aircraft specific equipment list of the items from this master list. When any item is added to or removed from the aircraft, its weight and arm are determined in the equipment list and used to update the weight and balance record.
9. What length of time can an aircraft be flown with inoperative equipment on board? (AC 91-67)
An operator may defer maintenance on inoperative equipment that has been deactivated or removed and placarded inoperative. When the aircraft is due for inspection in accordance with the regulation, the operator should have all inoperative items repaired or replaced. If an owner does not want specific inoperative equipment repaired, then the maintenance person must check each tem to see if it conforms to the requirements of 14 CFR §91.213. The maintenance person must ensure that each item of inoperative equipment that is to remain inoperative is placard appropriately.
10. What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight? (14 CFR 91.407)
No person may operate or carry passengers in any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight until an appropriately-rated pilot with at least a private pilot certificate
11. How long does the Airworthiness Certificate of an aircraft remain valid? (14 CFR Part 21)
Standard Airworthiness Certificates are effective as long as the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Part 43 and 91 and the aircraft is registered in the United States.
12. What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft? (14 CFR 91.409)
a. Annual inspection – within the preceding 12 calendar months.
Note: If an aircraft is operated for hire, it must have a 100-hour inspection as well as an annual inspection when due. If not operated for hire, it must have an annual inspection only.
13. Can a 100-hour inspection be substituted for an annual inspection? (14 CFR 91.409)
No, an annual inspection is acceptable as a 100-hour inspection, but the reverse is not true. The 100-hour inspection is generally the same as an annual inspection but is not considered as intense an inspection as the annual. Also, the 100-hour inspection can be signed off by an Airframe and Power plant Mechanic (A & P), but the annual inspection must be signed off by an Inspection Authorization (IA) Certificate holder.
14. What types of aircraft inspections can be substituted for a 100-hour inspection? (14 CFR 91.409)
The following may replace a 100-hour inspection:
15. If an aircraft, carrying passengers for hire, has been on a schedule of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours without a new inspection? (14 CFR 91.409)
The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
16. What are the required tests and inspections of aircraft and equipment to be legal for both VFR and IFR flights? (14 CFR 91.171, 91.203, 91.207, 91.411, 91.413)
a. The aircraft must have an annual inspection. If operated for hire or rental, it must also have a 100-hour inspection. A record must be kept in the aircraft/engine logbooks
17. Define preventive maintenance. (FAA-H-8083-25)
Preventive maintenance is considered to be simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations. Certificated pilots, excluding student pilots, sport pilots, and recreational pilots, may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft that is owned or operated by them provided that aircraft is not used in air carrier service. 14 CFR Part 43 identifies typical preventive maintenance operations which include such basic items as oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid (brakes, landing gear system) refills.
18. What are Airworthiness Directives? (FAA-H-8083-25)
An “AD” is the medium used by the FAA to notify aircraft owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defects, maintenance, or other causes, and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated. They are either of an emergency nature requiring immediate compliance upon receipt, or a less urgent nature requiring compliance within a longer period of time. ADs are regulatory and compliance is mandatory, unless specific exemption is granted.
19. Who is responsible for ensuring that all ADs have been complied with? (FAA-H-8083-25)
It is the aircraft owner or operator’s responsibility to assure compliance with all pertinent ADs. 14 CFR requires that a record be maintained showing the current status or applicable ADs, including the method of compliance, and the signature and certificate number of the repair station or mechanic who performed the work.