Oral Exam Preparation Questions and Answers
CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS
a. Be at least 17 years of age.
B. Privileges and Limitations
1. What privileges and limitations apply to a private pilot? (14 CFR 61.113)
No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft. A private pilot –
2. To act as pilot-in-command, or in any other capacity as a required flight crewmember of a civil aircraft, what must a pilot have in his/her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft? (14CFR 61.3)
a. A valid pilot certificate
3. What is the definition of a high-performance airplane, and what must you do to act as pilot-in-command of such an airplane? (14 CFR 61.31)
A high-performance airplane is an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower. To act as PIC of a high-performance airplane you must have :
a. Received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized flight instructor in a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane and have been found proficient in the operation and systems of that airplane.
Note : The training and endorsement required by this regulation is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
4. Other than high-performance and complex aircraft, what other types of aircraft (ASEL) require specific training and logbook endorsements from an appropriately rated flight instructor? (14 CFR 61.31)
High-Altitude Airplane – No person may act as pilot-in-command of a pressurized airplane that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude (whichever is lower), above 25,000 feet MSL unless that person has completed the ground and flight training specified and has received a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying satisfactory completion of the training.
Tail wheel Airplane – No person may act as pilot-in-command of a tail wheel airplane unless that pilot has received flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor who has found the pilot competent to operate a tail wheel airplane and has made a one-time endorsement so stating in the pilot’s logbook. The endorsement is not required if a pilot has logged flight time as pilot-in-command of tail wheel airplanes prior to April 15, 1991.
5. What is the definition of a complex airplane, and what must you do to act as pilot-in-command of such an airplane? (14 CFR 61.31)
A complex airplane is an airplane that has retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller. You must have:
Note : The training and endorsement required by this regulation is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of a complex airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a complex airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
6. With respect to certification, privileges, and limitations of airmen, define the terms: “Category”, “Class”, and “Type”. (14 CFR Part 1)
Category – a broad classification of aircraft; i.e., airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc.
C. Currency Requirements
1. What are the requirements to remain current as a private pilot? (14 CFR 61.56,61.57)
a. Within the preceding 24 months, accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized instructor and received a logbook endorsement certifying that the person has satisfactorily completed the review.
Note: Takeoffs and landings required by this regulation may be accomplished in a flight simulator or flight training device that is approved by the Administrator and used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a certificated training center.
You must possess a third-class medical certificate. If the medical certificate was issued before September 16, 1996, it expires at the end of 24th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the certificate. F it was issued on or after September 16, 1996, it expires at the end of :
a. The 36th month after the month if the date if the examination shown in the certificate if the person has not reached his or her 40th birthday on or before the date of the examination; or
3. If a pilot changes his/her permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airmen Certification branch of the new address, how long may the pilot continue to exercise the privileges of his/her pilot certificate? (14 CFR 61.60)
30 days after the date of the move.
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents
1. What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight? (14 CFR 91.203, 91.9)
2. How can a pilot determine if his/her aircraft is equipped with a Mode C altitude encoding transponder?
By referencing the current weight and balance equipment list for that aircraft, a pilot could positively determine whether or not a Mode C transponder is installed.
3. When will an aircraft registration certificate expire? (FAA-H-8083-25)
When any of the following occur:
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements
1. Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.403)
The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an airworthy condition.
2. After aircraft inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.7)
The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot-in-command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.
3. What records or documents should be checked to determine that the owner or operator of an aircraft has complied with all required inspections and airworthiness directives? (14 CFR 91.405)
The maintenance records (aircraft and engine logbooks). Each owner or operator of an aircraft shall ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service.
4. What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight? (14 CFR 91.407)
No person may operate or carry passengers in any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventative maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight until an appropriately rated pilot with at least a private pilot certificate
a. Flies the aircraft;
5. What is the Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid? (FAA-H-8083-25)
6. Can a pilot conduct flight operation in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment? (AC 91-69, 14 CFR 91.213)
Yes, under specific conditions. 14 CFR Part 91 describes acceptable methods for the operation of an aircraft with certain inoperative methods for the operation of an aircraft with certain inoperative instruments and equipment that are not essential for safe flight – they are :
a. Operation of aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List (MEL), as authorized by 14 CFR 91.213(a)
7. What are the Minimum Equipment Lists? (AC 91-67)
The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers; e.g., BE-200, N12345. The FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equipment that the FAA deems may be inoperative and still maintain an acceptable level of safety with appropriate conditions and limitations.
8. What limitations apply to aircraft operations conducted using the deferral provision of 14 CFR 91.213(d)? (FAA-H-8083-25)
When inoperative equipment is found during preflight or prior to departure, the decision should be to cancel the flight, obtain maintenance prior to flight, or to defer the item or equipment. Maintenance deferrals are not used for in flight discrepancies. The manufacturer’s AFM/POH procedures are to be used in those situations.
9. What limitations apply to aircraft operations being conducted using MELs? (FAA-H-8083-25)
The use of an MEL for a small, non-turbine-powered airplane operated under Part 91 allows for the deferral of inoperative items or equipment. The FAA considers an approved MEL to be a supplemental type certificate (STC) issued to an aircraft by serial number and registration number. Once an operator requests an MEL, and a Letter of Authorization (LOA) is issued by the FAA, then the MEL becomes mandatory for that airplane. All maintenance deferrals must be done in accordance with the MEL and the operator-generated procedures document.
10. What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213(d) for deferral of inoperative equipment? (FAA-H-8083-25)
The pilot determines whether the inoperative equipment is required by type design, the regulations, or Ads. If the inoperative item is not required, and the airplane can be safely operated without it, the deferral may be made. Then the pilot removes or deactivates the inoperative item, and places an INOPERATIVE placard near the appropriate switch, control, or indicator.
11. What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft? (14 CFR 91.409)
a. Annual inspection – within the preceding 12 calendar months
12. If an aircraft has been on a schedule of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours without a new inspection? (14 CFR 91.409)
The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
13. What is the difference between an annual inspection and a 100-hour inspection? (14 CFR Part 43)
No difference exist when comparing the content of an annual inspection with that of a 100-hour inspection. The difference is who is allowed to perform these inspections. Only an A&P mechanic with an Inspection Authorization can perform an annual inspection. 100-hour inspections may be performed by any A&P mechanic (no IA required).
14. Be capable of locating the required maintenance and equipment inspections for your aircraft in the aircraft and engine logbooks. What should these include? (14 CFR 91.207, 91.215, 91.405, and 91.413)
a. Annual inspection / 100 hour inspection
Note: If operating under IFR, the pilot-static pressure system, altimeter, and automatic pressure altitude reporting system must also have been tested and inspected in the preceding 24 calendar months.
Aircraft owners must:
a. Have a current Airworthiness Certificate and Aircraft Registration in the aircraft.
16. Define “Preventive Maintenance”. (FAA-H-8083-25)
“Preventive Maintenance” means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations. Certificated pilots, excluding student pilots, sport pilots, and recreational pilots, may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft that is owned or operated by them provided that aircraft is not used in air carrier service. 14 CFR Part 43 identifies typical preventive maintenance operations which include such basic items as oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid (brakes, landing gear system) refills.
17. What are “Special Flight Permits,” and when are they necessary? (14 CFR 91.213, 14 CFR 21.197)
A Special Flight Permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight. These permits are typically issued for the following purpose:
a. Flying an aircraft to a base where repairs, alteration or maintenance are to be performed, o tot a point of storage.
18. How are “Special Flight Permits” obtained? (FAA-H-8083-25)
If a special flight permit is needed, assistance and the necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR).
19. What are “Airworthiness Directives” (Ads)? (FAA-H-8083-25)
An AD is the medium the FAA uses to notify aircraft owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defects, maintenance, or other causes, and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated. ADs are regulatory in nature, and compliance is mandatory. It is the aircraft owner’s of operator’s responsibility to ensure compliance with all pertinent ADs.